Wednesday, August 31, 2016

#RPGaDay 2016 Day 31: Best Advice You Were Given for Your Game of Choice

The best advice that I was given for a game had to do with what to do when you have taken a break in the campaign.  The advice wasn't for any game in particular.  At the time I was GMing a Pathfinder campaign and we were playing sporadically.  We hadn't played in a while and I was listening to a podcast (I can't remember which one, maybe Haste) and the advice they gave for starting back up a from a break was to start with some action.  They said to start with the players in the middle of a fight or some other exciting situation and that would get everyone back into the game.  I tried it out at it was a success!

Tuesday, August 30, 2016

#RPGaDay 2016 Day 30: Describe the Ideal Game Room if the Budget Were Unlimited

Oh, the ideal game room.  There would be a table long enough to accommodate eight people.  There would be shelves along the walls full of rpg books.  There would be an endless supply of paper, pencils, and character sheets.  There would be a display case full of miniatures from every genre.  To top it off, there would be a hooded cloak for the GM to wear.

Also, this room would work just as well:

Monday, August 29, 2016

#RPGaDay 2016 Day 29: You Can Game Anywhere On Earth, Where Would You Chose?

If I could game anywhere then it would be at Burgdorf Castle in Switzerland.  My wife has relatives in Switzerland and we have traveled there twice.  Her relatives live near Burgdorf and we have visited the castle each time.  There would be something totally awesome about running a D&D adventure in an actual castle.

Our 2nd visit to the castle.  The little one is my daughte, the other two are my wife's aunt and uncle.
By the way, if you travel to Switzerland there is an excellent game store in Bern called
Drachennaescht which also sells juggling supplies.  Check it out if you can.

German Magic card I picked up at Drachennaest

Sunday, August 28, 2016

#RPGaDay 2016 Day 28: Thing You Would Be Most Surprised a Friend Had Not Seen or Read

This is a tricky topic.  It wasn't until this summer that I had read all of The Lord of the Rings.  I know many kids today who have not seen Star Trek or Star Wars.  Also, there has been such an explosion in new geek culture that some people don't have time to go back and read/watch the classics.  However, I would be surprised if a gamer friend had never seen Big Trouble in Little China.  Big Trouble in Little China was a movie that captivated me when my dad brought it home from the video store.  It had everything I wanted in a film; monsters, kung fu, magic, a bumbling hero, and tons of action.  If you haven't seen it, do yourself a favor and go watch it.

Saturday, August 27, 2016

#RPGaDay 2016 Day 27: Alternate Question Time - Why You Should GM

The topic for today is the most unusual circumstance or location in which you’ve gamed. All of my gaming sessions have been fairly vanilla. We either play at a table, over Google+, or at the occasional comic book convention. So I am going to discuss an alternate topic.

Why should someone GM a roleplaying game?

1. The majority of roleplaying games require a gamemaster. People could not play if there were no dungeon masters, storytellers, referees, etc. When you GM you take over a sacred role that is critical to the hobby.

2. Being a GM helps you learn empathy for all of the GMs who have come before you.

3. It is a great way to be creative. What I enjoy best about being a GM is making up interesting situations for the PCs and improvising off of their decisions.

4. If you are lucky you can take part in a total party kill!

5. Your players will be grateful that they have had to chance to play in a game.

Friday, August 26, 2016

#RPGaDay 2016 Day 26: What Hobbies Go Well With RPGs?

I think that reading and collecting comics are two hobbies that go well with rpgs.  Role playing games have rules and setting material that needs to be read.  Therefore it makes sense that someone who likes to read would be willing to slog through a 400 page book in order to play out novels of their own.  Role playing games have also been a medium that includes tons of art.  Comic books have used art and words to create imaginative worlds for a long time.  Comic books were one of the first places were I saw ads for role playing games as a kid.  Using art as inspiration for storytelling is a perfect example of why comics and rpgs go together.

An old Star Frontiers ad

Thursday, August 25, 2016

#RPGaDay 2016 Day 25: What Makes for a Good Character?

I think that a good character has a unique or unusual trait that makes them memorable.  There are hundreds of fighters and sell-swords, but only one fighter who quotes Trollish poetry as he stabs you in the throat.  There are many superheroes who use magic, but how many are humans who accidentally trapped themselves into the body of a monkey?  In my opinion, to make your character stand out give them a mannerism or quirk that will have people talking about them.

Wednesday, August 24, 2016

#RPGaDay 2016 Day 24: What is the Game You Are Most Likely to Give Others?

If I had to give a game to someone who was not familiar with rpgs I would give them a copy of Basic Fantasy.  There are a few reasons for this.

1.  Basic Fantasy is an easy system.  It mimics the Basic D&D rules while adding ascending armor class,  The rules are a quick read and concepts are explained well.

2.  Since Basic Fantasy is from the D&D family, it will give the new player exposure to the common tropes and rules of role-playing.  They will learn about classes, levels, orcs, saving throws, xp, etc.  They will understand what old-school grognards as well as 3.X players are talking about.

3.  The books are inexpensive and pdfs are available for free.  The rulebook can be purchased for $5.  For less than $10 I could give them the rules and an adventure.

If you haven't checked this system out, here is the link to their website:

Tuesday, August 23, 2016

#RPGaDay 2016 Day 23: Share One of Your 'Worst Luck' Stories

Again, today's post has to do with Hackmaster.  This is not so much a 'Worst Luck' story as it is a 'I Rolled Poorly but Everyone Had a Good Laugh" story.  After our campaign using the original Hackmaster rules, we started a new one using Hackmaster Basic.  I created another thief who had somewhat better skills.  One skill that I purchased was monster lore.  We were on a boat and were examining an empty crate.  The crate had been used to smuggle a giant scorpion, which was now loose on the boat.  Our PCs did not know what the monster was yet.  I rolled against my monster lore skill to try and deduce what the monster was from looking at the crate.  I failed miserably and the GM told me that I definitely thought that the monster was a manticore.  We proceeded to run around the boat shouting "Manticore, there is a manticore on the loose!"  That became our rallying cry for the rest of the campaign.


Monday, August 22, 2016

#RPGaDay 2016 Day 22: Random Events that Keep Happening

I was involved in a Hackmaster campaign.  We started with the original Hackmaster rules and my character had horrible skills.  Well, he did have an excellent skill in Dig Proper Grave due to his time on a prison work crew.  He was a thief and all of his other skills where horrible.  Every adventure he would try to steal something or pick a lock.  He never rolled well enough.  Dice are supposed to be random, right?  My thief couldn't hit a skill roll once.  He couldn't pick a pocket even though he and his mark were waist deep in sewer water.  He always rolled so poorly that the GM had to introduce an NPC who could get all the thief stuff done for us.  It was pretty embarrassing to have to rely on the bar maiden to pick a lock for my thief.

Sunday, August 21, 2016

#RPGaDay 2016 Day 21: Funniest Misinterpretation of a Rule in Your Group?

Ah, Pathfinder feats, there are so many of them!  One of my players had his fighter take the feat Spring Attack.  This was early on in our campaign so everyone was still new to the rules.  Spring Attack allows you to run up to a foe, attack them, and then run back without provoking an attack of opportunity.  The way that my player explained it to me was that he was allowed to use his full movement to approach a foe, attack him, and them use his full movement to spring back.  It felt like his character was the Hulk, making huge leaps around the map.  As I said, we were still new to the rules so nobody questioned it.  During the next session we had a new player who had some experience, and he politely informed us that he didn't think Spring Attack worked like that. As DM I felt a tad embarrassed and we nerfed the fighter.

Saturday, August 20, 2016

#RPGaDay 2016 Day 20: Most Challenging but Rewarding System You Have Learned?

The most challenging but rewarding system that I have learned is the d20 3.X D&D/Pathfinder system.  The first version of the d20 3.X system that I played was Pathfinder .  While the basic mechanics of the system are simple (roll a d20 and add modifiers), the elegance of the system is how much can be added.  The feats and combat options alone create a sophisticated mechanism that allows for unlimited variety in play.

GMing Pathfinder was a challenge, especially when I was running adventures for up to seven players. Reading the Pathfinder rules reminded me of wargaming rules.  They were long, complicated, and rules from one section affected rules in another section.  Trying to learn and remember enough to run a game was challenging and I am not sure if I ever had mastery of the system.  In fact, I had to quit running for a while due to fatigue.  However, all that rules-learning worked my brain like a muscle.

I now have a great respect for the d20 3.X system.  I appreciate how huge the system is and how many different options are available to those who play it.  I appreciate the elegance of how all the rules can work together.  My favorite thing about the d20 3.X system has to be the OGL that it was published under.  The OGL paved the way for other games such as Mutants and Masterminds, Spycraft, Castles & Crusades, and the OSR retro-clone movement.  When Paizo releases Starfinder I know that I will be ready to run some d20 again, attacks of opportunity be damned!

Friday, August 19, 2016

#RPGaDay 2016 Day 19: Best Way to Learn a New Game

Today's topic for RPGaDay is about the best way to learn a new game.  I have a strong opinion on this issue.  I believe that the best way to learn a new game is through a well written quick-start version of the rules.  Many role-playing games have produced quick-start guides that include a condensed version of the rules that allow new players to learn the bare bones of the system.  Players can take these quick-start rules and start playing the game with little effort.

Here is why I think that quick-start rules are the best way to learn new games.  Quick-start guides force the designers to boil the game down to the most basic rules.  Therefore, players can learn how the game works and can put that knowledge into practice as soon as possible.  One of the best ways to learn something is by doing it, so the sooner players can have their characters picking locks and killing orcs the better they will learn the system.  I think that beginner box sets are just as useful for the same reason.

I have ranted about my love for quick-starts on this blog in the past.  I think that they are a brilliant way to garner interest in your game.  I will close with some links to quick-starts that I believe are excellent for learning a new system.

Call of Cthulhu 6th edition quick-start - I know that there is a quick-start for the 7th edition of Call of Cthulhu, but this is the version that I am familiar with.  This product gets bonus points for having rules for character creation.

DC Adventures quick-start - Green Ronin created two quick-starts for DC Adventures.  This one pits Batman against Bane.  I like this one because it explains the character's powers and walks you through combat and skill checks.

Edge of the Empire quick-start - Fantasy Flight created this quick-start adventure for Free RPG Day.  I wrote an in depth review in a previous post.  This quick-start covers many of the rules of the game and explains how to play out the various encounters.  The only downside is that you will need some of those special Star Wars dice or use a conversion chart.

Conan RPG quick-start - I'll be honest, I haven't tried this one yet.  I did read it and I am now super excited for the new Conan rpg.

Thursday, August 18, 2016

#RPGaDAY 2016 Day 18: What Innovation Could RPGs Benefit Most From?

One innovation that I believe RPGs could benefit from is what I am going to term as the "hybrid RPG."  I am using the term hybrid RPG to describe games that cross over from the traditional format of RPGs (rulebooks and supplementary materials) to other forms of games (board games, card games, computer games, etc.).  Most hobbyists would love to see the player base of RPGs grow.  Pulling in new players has its challenges.  Giving someone a 400 page rule book and a character sheet that resembles a tax form can scare away potential recruits.  However, what if you can introduce players to something that resembles a board game, or an app game?  Then they can be transitioned to a fuller RPG experience.  The "Beginner Boxes" that some of the companies sell are close to this idea, but I think that companies can be more innovative and use more types of media.

Monopoly as a hybrid rpg.  Who hasn't role-played with their token? 

While there are examples of these hybrid games already (No Thank You Evil), one that is being designed specifically for this is for Trail of Cthulhu.  I was listening to an interview with a designer from Pelgrane Press and he was describing the new boxed set for Trail of Cthulhu.  The boxed set is being designed to resemble a board game.  Players will have stand-up tokens and a board on which they move around.  The idea will be to have people play Trail of Cthulhu as a board game while being tricked into role-playing.  I am not sure of the status of this project or how much it will change, but I think that this is a great idea to bring new players into the hobby.  I think that if people can figure out how to use this idea with card games, apps and social media then the hobby can have a huge potential pool of new players.

Wednesday, August 17, 2016

#RPGaDay 2016 Day 17: Which Fictional Character Would Best Fit in Your Group?

Today's question for RPGaDay 2016 is which fictional character would best fit in our group.  In our adventures players like to have fun and they like to cause trouble.  After all, that is the point of playing games.  If you are going to play pretend then let of some steam and go wild.  Therefore, I think that the fictional character who would fit in best would be Michelangelo, the coolest Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtle.

Michelangelo is all about having fun.  He is crazy and not afraid to try new things.  Will he can be unconventional he never forgets the importance of teamwork.  These are all qualities that would fit in with our gaming group.  Plus, he would bring some great pizza!

Tuesday, August 16, 2016

#RPGaDay 2016: Day 16 What Historical Person Would You Want in Your Group?

Today's question is what historical person would you want in your game group and what would you want the game to be?  This is an interesting question.  I have a list of historical figures that I would like to have in a Diplomacy game (Churchill, Kissinger, Machiavelli, Richelieu, Napoleon, and Wilson).  I have never given any thought to including a historical figure in a gaming group.  If I had to choose someone I might choose H.G. Wells and the game would be Savage Worlds.

H.G. Wells playing Little Wars
I would choose H.G. Wells because his Little Wars miniatures game is a precursor to the modern RPG, as D&D evolved from miniatures games.  I would choose Savage Worlds because that system uses miniatures and he would feel right at home.  I would run a science fiction game as he was a science fiction writer.  Perhaps we could run War of the Worlds: The Remains since it is based on one of his books!

Monday, August 15, 2016

#RPGaDay 2016: Day 15 Your Best Source of Inspiration for RPGs?

My best source of inspiration for RPGs comes from reading books and comics.  I am an avid reader and I usually have at least 2 books going at any time.  Many of my best ideas for adventures and campaigns come from books or comics that I have read.  I never worry about being called out for stealing ideas.  Usually nobody has read the book that I have taken an idea from, or if they have read it they are super excited about it.

Here are a couple of the notable elements that I have used from books in my adventures.  I once tasked a group of adventurers to sneak the Red Death into Prospero's ball from Poe's "Masque of the Red Death."  I adapted the short story "In the Stacks" by Scott Lynch into a Pathfinder adventure.  The story is about a group of magicians that need to return a book to a magical library.  Imagine a library full of books that want to kill you, that is the idea of the story and a perfect setup for an RPG adventure.

The Red Death arrives on time!
Books are an infinite source of ideas.  I could problem grab an idea from every book that I have read for an RPG adventure.  If you need some ideas, grab a book and start reading.  To paraphrase Captain OG Readmore, "Reading is a trip!"

Sunday, August 14, 2016

#RPGaDay 2016: Day 14 Alternate Question Time!

The question for today is who is your dream team of people that you used to game with?  I have kept in touch with my core group and we have gamed fairly frequently.  Therefore my dream team is more or less still around.  So I am answering an alternate question for RPGaDay 2016.

What is your preferred method of character improvement and why?

We are currently playing Hoard of the Dragon Queen with the D&D 5e rules.  Our DM is letting us level up after each session.  This is probably my favorite method of character improvement.  It is quick and simple.  It allows for our characters to grow and progress through the story.  Also, no one has to count or keep track of xp.  I am definitely going to put this method in my GM tool kit.

My second favorite method of character improvement is from Call of Cthulhu.  I love how characters get to roll to improve skills at the end of an adventure, and that the higher a skill is the harder it is to improve it.  The Call of Cthulhu method feels the most realistic to me.

Saturday, August 13, 2016

#RPGaDay 2016: Day 13 What Makes a Successful Campaign?

What does make a successful campaign?  I believe that commitment from the group is one of the best ingredients for a campaign to flourish.  If everyone is ready to meet on game day and have fun, then the campaign can be successful.  In order to make sure that everyone has fun, the GM should include action and make sure that everybody's character is able to have their moment of glory.  That is what I believe it takes for a successful campaign.

Friday, August 12, 2016

#RPGaDay 2016: Day 12 Which Game is Your Group Most Likely to Play Next?

The game we are most likely to play next is DC Adventures by Green Ronin.  Everyone in our group is a big fan of comics and we all like the DC universe.  We might have a big argument as to which DC universe the game will be set.  I prefer either the pre-Crisis or Injustice: Gods Among Us settings.  Others might prefer New-52 or Rebirth.  Nothing is more invigorating than a nerd debate about comics continuity.

By the way, Green Ronin has a good quickstart available for their game.

Thursday, August 11, 2016

#RPGaDay 2016: Day 11 Which Gamer Most Affected the Way You Play?

The gamer that has affected the way I play the most is my brother.  The reason is that he is the one who introduced me to role-playing.  My brother ran me through Keep on the Borderlands.  It was his stack of AD&D books and modules that I used to read.  It was his Grenadier miniatures that I used to play with.  Even though he killed my 1 hit point wizard (which made me cry), he was my first model for role-playing.

Wednesday, August 10, 2016

#RPGaDay 2016: Day 10 Largest In-Game Surprise I Have Experienced

Today's question is about the largest in-game surprise I have experienced.  This took place in a Pathfinder campaign that I was running.  In the adventure a wealthy patron was trying to recover a magical artifact that he suspected the players of stealing.  He invited them to diner and drugged them all so that everyone fell into a deep sleep.  He then had his mage place all of the characters into a dream realm which the patron controlled.

Part of the dream involved the players having to cross a room that was filled with a giant fishbowl.  The lip of the fishbowl was at the height of the doors, so the idea was that the players would open the door to the room and have to swim across the fishbowl.  I created a giant goldfish monster for the characters to fight and studied the rules for swimming and water combat.  Sure enough, one of the players cast spider climb.  They climbed across the ceiling, attached a rope to the other end of the room, and then the rest of the party used the rope to get across the room.  I was proud of their problem solving but disappointed that I did not get to have an underwater goldfish fight.

Tuesday, August 9, 2016

#RPGaDay 2016: Day 9 Beyond the Game, What's Involved in the Ideal Session?

So what is involved in the ideal session?  First, I need a space in which everyone is physically comfortable and allows for easy communication.  A nice table with plenty of space is great.  If the game is online, then the software used should allow for easy talking or chatting.  If the game is taking place in meat space, then some snacks and beverages are good additions.  I prefer game friendly snacks, such as pretzels and cut up vegetables.  Sauces, greasy foods, and other messy items add stress to the gaming environment.

There should be no time pressure so that the story can unfold, but the game should not take too long.  The players should be leveled up and prepared.  The GM should have notes ready.  Dice, paper, and pencils are available to all.  Miniatures or crude markers are nearby to show positions and distances.  Most importantly, every player is ready to have fun.  That is what would be involved in the ideal session.

Monday, August 8, 2016

#RPGaDay 2016: Day 8 Hardcover, Softcover, Digital, What Is Your Preference?

Ah, the question of what print medium do I prefer?  I am an avid bibliophile and I love the aesthetic of a beautifully bound book.  I do like ebooks and the unique options that they offer.  When it comes to game books, I do have a preference.

Hardcover offset-print book, with a pdf backup copy.

Hardcovers look nice and can take some punishment.  Offset-print books are put together well, and the bindings feel sturdy.  Having a pdf backup allows me to read the book conveniently.  I can take a tablet to someone's house when I run the game instead of heavy (but pretty) book.

Softcovers are nice as well.  I like how flexible and light softcovers are.  PDF and ebooks are great in that they are portable.  I'll be honest, any book is welcome in my home.

I do like the effect that print-on-demand has had on the RPG hobby.  Now we can get physical copies of games that are out-of-print or that have niche audiences.  Print-on-demand is of a lower quality that offset printing, although I have been mostly pleased with the titles that I have bought.  One downside of print-on-demand is that it takes the books out of stores.  We may lose some people who might have picked up that strange looking book in the store and decided to give that weird game a chance.  However, our society is changing and POD may be the way of the future for printing.

Sunday, August 7, 2016

#RPGaDay 2016: Day 7 What Aspect of RPGs Has Had the Biggest Effect on You?

Today's question is about the aspect of RPGs that has had the biggest effect on me.  I would have to say the aspect that has affected me the most is the fact that role-playing games invite the player to actively create their own content and material.  When I was young I spent hours reading through rulebooks, setting material, and modules.  I played very little during my younger years.  What I did do was imagine characters and adventures in my mind.  I would conjure dire dungeons and populate them with monsters and traps.  I would imagine heroes fighting their way through the dungeons to their doom.  RPGs gave me the tools, materials, and paradigm to bolster my imagination.

How I dream up my next adventure

This has had the biggest impact on me.  Throughout my life I like to use my imagination.  When I am trying to solve a problem I like to think of unorthodox, imaginative solutions.  I like to create campaigns and adventures that are novel and exciting.  I feel that RPGs are exercise for my imagination.  To me this is the most important thing that RPGs can do for us.

Saturday, August 6, 2016

#RPGaDay 2016: Day 6 Most Amazing Thing a Game Group Did for Their Community

Today I am going to talk about BrigadeCon.  BrigadeCon is on online roleplaying convention that is hosting #RPGaDay 2016.  The awesome thing about BrigadeCon is that registration is free and that the event is for charity.  BrigadeCon accepts donations and will be selling t-shirts, and all the money will be going to the Child's Play Charity.  Child's Play Charity provides video games, games, and toys to hospitals for children.  I believe that it is way cool that a gaming convention will help provide hospitals with games.

Go sign up for BrigadeCon now.  BrigadeCon will take place on October 29th.  Registration is free and is open until October 15th.  Head over to their website at

Friday, August 5, 2016

#RPGaDay 2016: Day 5 What Story Does Your Group Tell About Your Character?

Today's topic is what story does your group tell about your character?  Probably that my thief was always looting bodies in the middle of battles.  Even though the fight would not be over I would go ahead and check the pockets of the slain foes.  Hey, it's what a thief does!

Thursday, August 4, 2016

#RPGaDay 2016: Day 4 Most Impressive Thing Another Character has Done

Today's topic is the most impression thing another character has done.  I was in a Hackmaster campaign where we were fighting against some cult of undead evil.  Our party was down in a crypt facing off against a group of skeletons.

Skeletons are no joke in Hackmaster!
Our group was low level and outmatched.  We must have been playing Hackmaster Basic because I remember rules for exploding dice.  Our dwarf cleric smashed into the first skeleton with his mace.  He kept hitting the max on his exploding dice rolls for damage and dealt over 40 points to the skeleton, which immediately crumpled to the ground.  Instead of running we figured we had a shot so we stayed to fight the rest of the skeletons.  Of course the dwarf cleric was killed and we all ran away, but his mighty blow was talked about for ages.

Wednesday, August 3, 2016

#RPGaDay 2016: Day 3 Character Moment you are Proudest of

I was playing a thief in a Hackmaster campaign.  My character had the boating skill, which I justified by saying he grew up in a fishing village.  Our party had to spend the night in a city.  The government of the city had this crazy rule where once you entered the city you were issued papers, and you could not leave the city without your papers.  It was very clear to us that our GM was going to do everything in his power to relieve us of our papers.

The party was due to leave via boat the following morning.  My plan was to go aboard the ship and get hired by the captain.  I would stay on the ship until we left and then I wouldn't be in a position to have my papers stolen.  The GM said the captain didn't want to hire me because I didn't have the proper training.  I lifted up my character sheet triumphantly and said, "I have the boating skill!"

I earned a few gold working on the ship and the GM said I earned no xp for the venture because I was a thief and had actually worked for a day's wage.  It was a victory in my book.

Tuesday, August 2, 2016

#RPGaDay2016: Day 2 Best Game Session since August 2015?

Today's question asks what is the best game session that you have had since August 2015.  My best session so far is when I ran the new Delta Green for my group.  This was my first experience with Delta Green.  Call of Cthulhu is one of my favorite games and I have often thought that the CoC system would be a good fit for and espionage rpg.  I have pre-ordered the Case Officer's Handbook and the Fall of Delta Green Gumshoe game.  I love how they have updated the rules for modern day and for cloak and dagger operations.

The scenario that we ran was a playtest for an upcoming module, so I will not speak too much about what happened at the session.  What I will tell you is that I had a blast as GM.  I did not roll any dice.  I loved watching the players try to figure out where the evil was, and to watch them fail and go insane.  Good times, and I will definitely be running this in the future.

Monday, August 1, 2016

#RPGaDay August 2016: Day 1 How do you roll?

#RPGaDay for August 2016 has started!  On to our first question of the day.

Read dice, dice app, diceless, how do you prefer to roll?

I prefer real dice.  There is something about rolling physical dice that I love.  The feel of dice clicking in my hand, the daring of fate as I shake my enclosed fist, and the anticipation as I let the dice tumbling are all paramount to my gaming experience.  In our online session we used to use dice roller apps but we now let everyone use their own dice.

I will amend this entry by saying that one of the most fun sessions that I had as a GM was when I did not roll a single die during the entire session.  We were play-testing the new Delta Green and I just sat back and watched the chaos ensue.  Whichever way you roll, play well and have fun!

My brother's set of dice from his Basic D&D set